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Both parents and experts have discovered that these gadgets will help alleviate anxiety and enhance attention in all children–not only people who have disabilities.

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Web Standards, Semantic Markup and Cross-Browser Compatibility

I have been in the web design field for over eight years of my life now, and only recently has the importance of web semantics presented itself to me.
If you have ever cruised around the blogosphere, or the teen blogging realm of the internet, you may have seen things like “Valid XHTML” and/or “Valid CSS”. These terms are applied when a web developer takes accessability and following web standards into consideration.

At the forefront of validation and web semantics is, or the World Wide Web Consortium. This website recommends using valid, semantic markup to ensure cross-browser compatibility, as well as the accessibility factor of websites. W3C does not, however, create these rules and standards. That is the job of ISO, the International Organization for Standardization.

Let’s say that you are an up-and-coming web designer. You have several years of experience in dealing with HTML, CSS, and designing layouts. You are confused by all of the validation terms thrown about on your friend’s personal websites and blogs, and you want to know what this means, as well as how to utilize web standards in your own designs. In essence, validating your markup ensures that your website will look almost identical no matter what browser or resolution your visitors are using. It also ensures that disabled persons have easy access to your website, resulting in an overall better, more effective website. To know more about this, I do suggest you check out workshops from web development companies.

I used to not even bother with validating my CSS or my markup, and I used to only use one browser to test my designs in. My opinions on the subject have obviously changed, and most of that comes from acquiring more knowledge on the subject, and actually taking the time to understand it and utilize it. I used to think that people who validated put too much focus on everything being “perfect.” After I actually started to read about it, understand it further, and realize it’s importance, I quickly changed my views.

A lot of people don’t validate because they find the idea intimidating, which it can be if you don’t know anything about it. But in reality, it simply doesn’t make sense not to validate. Some people don’t even check to see what their websites look like in other browsers, which is just senseless and lazy.

Let’s pretend for a moment that you coded your entire website strictly for use in Internet Explorer. You’ve used iframes, and deprecated inline style classes to style your page. I, your visitor, use Mozilla Firefox, and I see your layout totally different. Your alignment is off due to using absolute positioning as opposed to incorporating Floats for a fluid layout, and you have used a chroma filter for transparency in your iframes. In Firefox, that same chroma filter shows up a hideous neon green. I most likely make ugly faces, and leave your site shortly thereafter never to return. These are things you should take into consideration when creating a visually cohesive, aesthetically pleasing design.

Despite the fact that Internet Explorer still dominates the browser market, (which to be honest, is beyond me) if your website is completely off in Opera, Safari, Mozilla Firefox, or any of the other dozens of less popular browsers out there, chances are pretty high that you won’t have as many return visitors as you would had you taken web standards into consideration. It’s not difficult to validate, which seems to be the biggest misapprehension regarding the subject. A lot of people don’t realize that sometimes all it takes is the correct doctype declaration, and adding a few forward slashes to close your tags. It’s obviously not always going to be that simple, but if you follow the right tutorials and use common sense while coding, you shouldn’t have to make that many changes to begin with.

Here are a few tips that would have helped me out greatly when I didn’t know a whole lot about validation; Follow valid tutorials from websites like Don’t use tutorial sites like that dish out badly written, deprecated markup. Always check your website in as many browsers as possible to ensure cross browser compatibility. Use external stylesheets linked to your pages, instead of repeating style tags on every page of your website. Run your HTML through HTML Tidy, and your CSS through CSS Tidy for the best optimization and compression. Finally, validate your markup and CSS with the validation services offered at W3C.

In closing, semantics, validation and compatibility are extremely important for maintaining a successful, professional and effective website.

5 Simple tips to follow for Normal Delivery

5 Simple tips to follow for Normal Delivery

A lot of things are changing in the recent times. We are living in a time where the natural and simple things seem complex and confusing. We are not wondering as to how fruits are genetically altered, but our jaws drop when we see a person looking after his own garden. I can stack this page with a lot of similar examples. The same is the case with pregnancy. Earlier people used to wonder if the issue wasn’t a normal delivery, but these days issues in pregnancy have become quite common, and technology in the field of medicine has gone to the extent of finding alternative treatments instead of finding means to uproot such issues.

But still, we haven’t lost hope. Certain health care tips can prevent a pregnant woman from facing complex issues and help them have a normal delivery.

5 Simple tips to follow for Normal Delivery

Tips for Normal Delivery:

Avoid gaining weight:

Gaining weight is a part of pregnancy. You need not have to panic. Make sure that you fall back to your ideal weight within the first few months of the pregnancy. Women are expected to maintain their ideal weight and stay fit irrespective of whether they are pregnant or not, only to avoid complications during pregnancy. So if you are pregnant, have an eye on your weight, this can help reduce your labour pain and induce normal delivery.

Healthcare Provider:

If it falls within the affordable limit, you can always pick a health care provider who can stay with you all the time and take care of your fitness and wellness routine on a day to day basis. Make sure that the healthcare provider you pick directs her clients to normal delivery. These days it has become quite common to appreciate the idea of caesarean delivery. So beware of who you pick as your healthcare provider.

Simple fitness routine:

Most people get confused and link exercise and weight levels of the person. We aren’t concerned about others, but at least when it comes to a pregnant woman exercise has nothing to do with your weight. If you are pregnant, do not work out with the aim of reducing weight. Remember, simple exercises on a regular basis can help in keeping your bones and joints flexible. This can highly reduce the labour pain. Make sure that you spend some quality time for yoga and meditation.

Refrain from Negative feelings:

As much as possible keep yourself happy all the time. Refrain from anything and everything that can possibly stress you or increase your blood pressure levels. Do not listen to incidents or stories that are scary. This can grossly affect both the mother and the baby. So it is quite important that you have your emotions under control and stay away from anything that is negative.

Prenatal education:

Prenatal education will quite mandatory for all pregnant women. This will help you get the right kind of education regarding the way you have to alter your lifestyle in order to make your gestation period happy and healthy. Prenatal education is one way to kill all the myth and tales that people force into your head. This will also prevent unnecessary fear of pregnancy, labour pain and delivery.

How to Hire Professional PR Help

Do you need high quality and expensive PR help? Or do you need something basic, because most of the work you can on your own? These are some of the question you need to ask yourself before you go and solicit help from PR companies.
Here is a list of dos and don’t’s you can follow while selecting PR help:

Do use an agency if you feel like you need some real professional help and have the budget to do get some PR help.

Do consider using an agency if you spend more than $3000 a month on PR ventures. This money will go a long way with a professional PR company. You will really be getting your money’s worth while saving you time to do other things.

Do not hire a PR company if you’re trying to cut costs or stay within a certain budget. Getting outside PR help is always more expensive than doing it yourself. Keep on doing what you are doing and continue to advance your PR skills by learning and when you have your big break in the media then you can look into getting some professional PR help.

Do not hire a PR firm if you are just trying to save yourself time. It does save you some time, but you will still have to work with these people. You will still have to have phone conversations and in person meetings to discuss the direction of the material. Changes will have to be made and approved by you.

Do hire a PR company if your company is marketing oriented.

Do hire and agency if you need assistance in planning a special promo event, introducing a new product line and finding the appropriate target market.

Do hire a PR firm if you intend to thoroughly use all of its services especially if they are expensive.

Do hire a PR agency if you get stuck in a rut. Sometimes we can just run out of fresh, innovative and creative ideas. If you are currently in this boat and can afford it get some PR help, it will help to rev things up and give you fresh perspective from another source.

Do hire a PR Agency if you want a first classic look! This of course will come at a hefty price, but it is worth it if the company of your choice does everything top notch. Also, first class agency will tend to get your materials out with much more speed than usual. If you business is related to hospitality jobs for example, your PR person will surely be relating your campaigns to having endorses and tourism sites and destinations as part of it.

Do not hire an agency if you are sure no one else can promote the way you do. If you have a special twist or insight into the industry or your audience, do it yourself. Sometimes, PR firms can get into the rut of doing the same thing. However, if you are always coming up with fresh ideas than just keep on doing it yourself till you get stuck in a PR rut.

How to Select a PR Firm

Selecting a PR firm does not have to be a troubling or stressful endeavor. Here are some key things to look out for when choosing a PR Firm:

Opt for a PR Agency with expertise in your chosen field:

I know this might sound like a no brainier, but Many PR firms will do all types of industries. It is better to hire one who specializes in what you specialize in because they will be way more knowledgeable when putting together your PR information. It will be more thorough and believable.

Do not hire a PR agency with more capabilities than you need:

When starting out in PR unless you have deep pockets you do not need a PR agency with overseas branching, television and radio promotion. Keep it simple to start. Save all that money for a time when your company is well known and it is worth spending a lot of cash. Get someone who can simply write you an amazing PR release kit.

Make sure that the Agency is the right size for you:

Make sure that the PR agency of interests small enough to be interested in working with you in a dynamic way, but large enough to make a significant impact on your PR results.

Ask to see the PR agency’s work:

Anyone can make an awesome website that can cause you to believe that their work is just as awesome as their website! Even customer testimonials are not even enough. How do we really know if they just paid these people to say nice things about their product? Ask to see samples of their work. Seeing is believing in this case. Never just trust what they say unless you have had a long term relationship with them and you trust their judgment. It is your precious time and money that will be wasted if you do not do your homework first.

Check out the personal chemistry:

When you meet or talked to the PR representative how did you feel? Vibes are so important when it comes to making a decision on what firm to go with. When you meet or talk to a rep over the phone you should sense that they are really listening to what you are saying. You should sense that they are honest and will do what the say they are going to do. Lastly, you should just be able to get along with them and enjoy their personality. If non of this is going on than it is probably not the right business match.

Getting the Most out of Hired PR Help

You have worked hard at putting a PR plan of action together and have researched many PR agency’s and you have found the one that is going to work best for you and your company. Here are some tips on getting the most out of your chosen PR agency.

Brief your agency:

Do not just drop off some information and run. Take time to talk to them about the company in general. Talk to them about your target audience; tell them in detail about your products and all its superior benefits. Tell them what your expectations. The more they know about you, the company, the target audience and the product the more their work will please you.

If you decide to use different agency for your advertising needs hold a meeting:

Hold a meeting with both the PR Firm and the Ad agency. In doing this you will only have to hash out all the details once and everyone will get the same information in the same way. I would even record the meeting just for your own record on what was said and not said!

Do not compete with your agency in the creative area:

Say you do not like their creative process in putting together your press kit, do not make them feel bad. Offer up some constructive criticism and return the work so it can be re-done. If you still do not like what was created and you can do it better, fire the company and do it yourself.

Be reasonable about paying:

Many PR firms and freelance writers have it hard because their clients will not pay them or conveniently “forget” to pay them. So many PR firms and freelancers end up going out of business because their own clients cheat them and do not pay for the work that is done. If you want to have a good reputation in the field you better pay fair and pay on time. In the long run such ill practices will come back to punish you and your company with a bad reputation.

Establish and maintain direction in the process:

When working with a PR firm I would suggest having weekly meetings to check in with them to see how thing are going. This helps to make sure that the company is doing what they said they were capable of doing. This also lets you know if they are really keeping on schedule. In these meetings make sure that the direction of the project is staying true to the message of the company and the product.

Integrating PR with the Rest of your Business

In my last few articles I talked about how PR should be apart of the overall marketing of the product. I went over how to do internal and external research of your company, how to come up with a PR plan and how to choose a PR firm if necessary. Now that all that is covered it is time to integrate PR with the rest of your business, consider the following:

PR should always be fully integrated into other forms of marketing when launching a new product or service.

The PR department should always know what is going on in the other marketing arenas. When you have your strategic marketing meetings someone from the PR department should be present.

PR should not be isolated to themselves when working on a project. PR should actually be working side by side with other marketers even if their components are a little different. The more that PR works with the different components of marketing the better the PR plan will be overall.

Every PR manager whether they are full time or part time should the following to keep in tuned to what is going on in the company’s activities:

Read industry trade journals.
Attend all major trade shows at which your company is exhibiting at, the more they go the more relationships they can make to gain more free press.

Make a habit of frequently reviewing the website to make sure everything is up to date and competitive with other company’s websites.

Read all new sales literature that your company produces. The selected PR person can really put in their helpful opinion about the look and content of the literature.

Respond to competitor’s ads and press. Request sales literature from them and learn what they are doing. You can also learn what not to do from a lot of their literature.

Regularly check in with the sales team to see how the product is doing. Find out from them how the customers are responding to the product or the service. Be willing to take the good with the bad and adjust as necessary.

If and when you have free time go with a sales rep to a sales call and see how the product and service is being promoted. Is it being promoted in a way that really gets your message across? If the messages are not getting across in away that is ok with you address the issue with sales rep. The two of you together can work on the presentation of it so that it does match the PR message that you have created.

5 Health tips that all Pregnant Women should know

5 Health tips that all Pregnant Women should know

Food is a major factor that determines the health of a woman when she is pregnant. Pregnant women are more than often advised to have an eye on their eating habits as it can have an impact on both mother and the baby. What the child has to receive is sent through the mother’s umbilical cord, and it is important that a woman doubly ensures what she is about to consume especially during her pregnancy. In case if you are expecting your baby and came here looking for some tips, then you are at the right place. These are the 5 simple things that you should have in mind during your pregnancy.

5 Health tips that all Pregnant Women should know

Make a list of what you shouldn’t eat:

A pregnant woman should always have a list of do’s and don’ts. In most cases, all of are aware of what we have to do. We only aren’t aware of certain things that we shouldn’t be doing. So the first thing that you have to do once you get the good news is to wait for the excitement to settle and make a list of food items that you should be eating. Paste it somewhere you will look every day. This way you can prevent yourself from gobbling something risky and unhealthy.

Eat every four hours:

Make sure that you eat at even intervals that will keep you from feeling hungry too soon. Remember that you are eating for two people now. It is imperative that you fill your tummy with something at least once in every four hours. But the crux lies here. You are expected to eat something healthy. Do not go for food items that are way too oily. This can affect your indigestion system. Snack on something that is healthy and at the same time filling.

Take the necessary components:

There are certain components that you cannot miss out on a regular basis. Make sure that you eat food items that are rich in fibre content. Eat fruits that are allowed and also make sure that you drink a lot of water and keep yourself hydrated. The next important thing is that you are supposed to ensure that food items are rich in vitamin and omega 3 components. In aren’t a strict vegan, make it a point to consume fish at least thrice a week.

Avoid Pills:

When you are pregnant, it is quite common that you might lack some of the major components and there might be an imbalance in your ideal health proportion. But this is no way means that you have to substitute them with vitamin or other tablets. Not all tablets are advised to consume at least when you are pregnant. In case if you feel it is necessary, then consult a doctor before you do so.

Beware of the foodborne diseases:

Sometimes gathering adequate information about the foodborne diseases that can affect a pregnant woman can help women better focus on their eating habits. We completely understand that sometimes it can be difficult tough to cope with certain cases that you might come across in papers and magazines, and sometimes seeing or hearing something negative can affect the mental well-being. Sometimes fear is good. You will adequate preventive measures to make sure that you and your baby are healthy. But we promise that once you make a note of the above points and follow it meticulously, you are sure to stay free from all these diseases.

What Do Lions Eat?

Lions are carnivores

They eat many different kinds of animals, known as prey. Lions can eat a lot! Male lions eat an average of 7 kg of food per day and lionesses eat 4.5 kg. Both can eat up to 15% of their body weight during just one meal. For a male, that’s the same as 70 cans of cat food! Lions are known to be greedy and hunt animals even when they are not hungry. When a lion tucks into a juicy zebra and another animal comes near, he often forgets that it will be killed in his zeal to catch more food.
Lions can’t run very fast. With a top speed of 60 kilometers per hour, they are quite slow compared to the 97 km / h of a cheetah.

Also, they can’t run for very long without getting out of breath. For this reason, lions must be smart hunters. By tracking their prey, they can get as close as possible before the hunt begins. Very slowly, crouching close to the ground, lions crawl as close as they can to their victims. To make sure they have not been seen or heard, they may jump very quickly on an animal and take it by surprise.

When hunting smaller animals, lions will often grab onto their prey. By cutting off an animal’s ankle while walking or running from behind, the lion aims to trip it, making it easier to catch. Larger animals are brought down by jumping on their backs. This is usually when the larger, stronger male lions decide to join in.

Although lions can hunt alone, it can be much easier to have a little help. When hunting in a group, each lion has his own place. Just like on a soccer team, they choose either a left, right or center position. If stalking is too difficult, a group of lions may decide to ambush their prey instead.

Running very fast at an animal forces it to run to other lions, or into bushes where it can be caught. Working together like this, lions are much more likely to catch their prey. Lions have even been known to climb trees and jump on unsuspecting elephants as they run underneath!

Although lionesses do most of the hunting while males just sit and watch once an animal is caught, it is the males that always feed first. Lions are good at working together to catch their prey, but they are terrible at sharing it and will fight over their food. Often smaller, weaker lions will starve while the others get fed first. Depending on the size of the kill, they may not get anything at all.

Lions are also scavengers and like to steal food from other animals or eat leftovers after a kill. This means than if other carnivores have caught prey, lions will often bully them into giving up their food.
However, this does not always work with hyenas, which also live in a family group called a clan. If there are more hyenas than lions, they can often hold on to their food. Even the largest hyena clan is no match for a male lion. The king of the jungle always wins!

Lions don’t usually drink much water, but often live near rivers, streams, and watering holes. This is not because they are thirsty, but because they know that predators will come to drink sooner or later. They can wait patiently until dinner. Areas with lots of water often flood, so lions literally have to jump at the deep end to catch their dinner. Because swimming is such good exercise, these lions are often very large and muscular, just like Olympic swimmers!

Where Do Snow Leopards Live?

Snow leopards have evolved to live in the harshest conditions on earth. They scale the large, steep slopes of mountains in Central Asia with ease, blending into the landscape. But these majestic and elusive cats face many threats, including habitat loss and degradation from climate change and human encroachment, retaliatory killings due to human-animal conflict, reduced prey, and poaching.

WWF is working to reduce human-wildlife conflict, increase anti-poaching efforts, and protect fragile snow leopard habitat.

Here’s a look at what you should know about the species:

Where do snow leopards live?

Snow leopards live in a vast area in the high mountains of northern and central Asia, including the Himalayan region. In the Himalayas, snow leopards live in high alpine areas, usually above the tree line and up to 18,000 feet in elevation. They occur in 12 countries-including China, Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Russia, and Mongolia.

What do snow leopards look like?

Snow leopards have thick gray and yellow colored fur, with solid patches on the head, neck and lower limbs and rosettes over the rest of the body. Rosettes are large rings that enclose smaller patches. WWF relies on spot patterns in camera trap surveys to identify individual snow leopards. Snow leopards also have very long, thick tails that they wrap around their bodies for balancing on rocks and protection from the cold. Their short front legs and long hind legs make them very agile and they can jump up to 50 feet. They also have large, furry paws that act as both snowshoes and padding on sharp rocks.

What do snow leopards eat?

Snow leopards are capable of killing prey up to three times their own weight. They eat blue sheep, argali – wild sheep, ibex, marmots, pikas, deer and other small mammals. The animals that snow leopards normally hunt-like argali sheep-are also hunted by local communities. Because their natural prey is harder to find, snow leopards are often forced to kill livestock for survival, which in many cases leads to retaliation against snow leopards by local farmers or herders.

Why are snow leopards important?

Snow leopards play a key role both as a predator and as an indicator of the health of their high-altitude habitat. When snow leopards thrive, so will countless other species.

Where Do Lions Live?

Lion (Panthera leo), large, powerfully built cat (family Felidae), second only to the tiger. The proverbial “king of beasts,” the lion has been one of the most famous wild animals since earliest times. Lions are most active at night and live in a variety of habitats, but prefer grassland, savanna, dense scrub and open forest. Historically, they ranged throughout much of Europe, Asia, and Africa, but are now found primarily in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. An isolated population of about 650 Asiatic lions forms a somewhat smaller breed that lives under strict protection in India’s Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary.

The lion is a well-muscled cat with a long body, large head and short legs. Size and appearance vary considerably between the sexes. The prominent feature of the male is his mane, which varies between different individuals and populations. It may be completely absent; it may fringe the face; or it may be full and shaggy, covering the back of the head, neck, and shoulders and continuing onto the neck and chest to join a fringe along the belly. In some lions, the mane and fringe are very dark, almost black, giving the cat a majestic appearance. Manes make males look larger and can be used to intimidate rivals or impress potential mates. An adult male is about 6-7 feet (1.8-2.1 meters) long, not including the 1-meter tail; stands about 3 feet (1.2 meters) tall at the shoulder and weighs 370-500 pounds (170-230 kg). The female, or lioness, is smaller, with a body length of 1.5 meters (5 feet), a shoulder height of 0.9-1.1 meters (3 feet), and a weight of 120-180 kilograms (1,000-2,000 pounds). The lion’s coat is short and varies in color from buff yellow, orange-brown or silvery gray to dark brown, with a tuft at the tip of the tail that is usually darker than the rest of the coat.


Lions are unique among cats in that they live in a group, or Pride. Members of a pride usually spend the day in several scattered groups that may unite to hunt or share a meal. A pride consists of several generations of lionesses, some of whom are related, a smaller number of breeding males, and their cubs. The group may consist of up to 4 or up to 37 members, but about 15 is the average size. Each pride has a well-defined territory consisting of a core area that is strictly defended against intruding lions and a fringe area where some overlap is tolerated. Where prey is abundant, an area can be as small as 20 square kilometers (8 square miles), but when game is sparse, it can cover up to 400 square kilometers. Some Prides have been known for decades to use the same territory and pass the territory between females. Lions proclaim their territory by roaring and by scent marking. Their distinctive roar is usually delivered the night before a night hunt and again before rising at dawn. Males also announce their presence by urinating on bushes, trees, or simply on the ground, leaving a pungent scent. Defecation and rubbing on bushes leave different scent markings.


Lions hunt a variety of animals ranging from rodents and baboons to African buffalo and hippopotamus, but predominantly hunt medium to large ungulates such as wildebeest, zebra, and antelope. Prey preferences vary geographically as well as between neighboring countries. Lions have been known to take elephants and giraffes, but only if the individual is young or particularly sick. They readily eat any meat they can find, including carrion and fresh kills that they intercept or forcibly steal from hyenas, cheetahs, or wild dogs. Female lions, living in open savannas, do most of the hunting, while males usually get their meals from the female’s kills. However, male lions are also skilled hunters and hunt frequently in some areas. Proud males in scrub or forested habitat spend less time with females and hunt most of their own meals. Nomadic males must always secure their own food.
Although a group of hunting lions is potentially nature’s most formidable predator on land, a high proportion of their hunts fail. The cats pay no attention to wind direction (which can carry their scent to their prey), and they tire after short distances. Typically, they stalk prey from close cover and then break out to get it in a short running, quick rush. After pouncing on the prey, the lion leaps at its neck and bites until the animal is strangled. Other members of the pride quickly scramble to feed on the kill, Usually fighting for access. Hunts are sometimes conducted in groups, with members of a pride circling a herd or approaching it from opposite directions and then approaching a kill in the resulting panic. The cats typically gorge themselves and then rest near them for several days. An adult may consume more than 34 kg of meat in a single meal and rest for a week before resuming the hunt. When prey is abundant, both sexes typically spend 21 to 22 hours a day resting, sleeping, or sitting and hunting for only 2 or 3 hours a day.

Reproduction and life cycle

Both sexes are polygamous and breed year-round, but females are usually restricted to the one or two adult males of their pride. In captivity, lions often breed every year, but in the wild they usually breed no more than once every two years. Females are receptive to mating for three or four days within a largely variable reproductive cycle. During this time, a pair generally mates every 20-30 minutes with up to 50 copulations per 24 hours. Such prolonged copulation not only stimulates ovulation in the female, but also ensures paternity for the male by excluding other males. The gestation period is about 108 days, and litter size varies from one to six young; two to four are common.

Newborn cubs are helpless and blind and have thick fur with dark spots that usually disappear with maturity. Young can follow their mothers at about three months of age and are weaned by six or seven months. They begin participating in kills by 11 months, but probably cannot survive on their own until they are two years old. Although lionesses care for cubs other than their own, they are surprisingly inattentive mothers and often leave their cubs alone for up to 24 hours. There is a correspondingly high mortality rate (e.g., 86 percent in the Serengeti), but survival rates improve after the second year of life. In the wild, sexual maturity is reached at three or four years of age. Some female cubs remain within the pride when they reach sexual maturity, but others are forced and join other prides or migrate as nomads. Male boys are forced out of the pride at about age three and become nomads until they are old enough to try to take over another pride (after age five). Many adult males remain nomads for life. Mating opportunities for nomadic males are rare, and competition between male lions to defend a pride’s territory and mate with pride females is fierce. Cooperative partnerships of two to four males are more successful at maintaining tenure with a pride than individuals, and larger coalitions father more surviving offspring per male. Small coalitions typically include related men, while larger groups often include independent individuals. When a new cohort of males is able to take over a pride, they will attempt to kill young boys sired by their predecessors. This has the effect of shortening the time before the boys’ mothers are ready to mate again. Females try to prevent this infanticide by hiding or directly defending their cubs; lionesses are generally more successful at protecting older cubs because they would leave the pride sooner. In the wild, lions rarely live more than 8 to 10 years, mainly due to attacks by humans or other lions or the effects of kicks and blows from intended prey. In captivity, they may live 25 years or longer.

Conflicts with humans, especially herders, outside parks are a major problem, and humans living in parks remain the predominant source of mortality for most populations. In 1994, for example, a variant of canine distemper caused the deaths of an estimated 1,000 lions in Serengeti National Park. The apparent source of the virus was domestic dogs living along the periphery of the park. Despite these challenges, lion populations are healthy in many African reserves and in Gir, and they are a major tourist attraction. However, high population densities of lions can be a problem, not only for local ranchers, but also for the cheetah and African wild dog-critically endangered carnivores that lose their kills, cubs, and lives to lions.

The genus Panthera includes leopards, jaguars and tigers as well as lions. In captivity, lions were made to mate with other big cats. The offspring of a lion and a tigress is called a liger; that of a tiger and a lioness, a tigon; that of a leopard and a lioness, a leopon. However, the cat known as the mountain lion (see Puma) is a new world member of the genus Puma.

How Fast Are Cheetahs

Cheetahs-the fastest land mammals in the world-are incredible creatures. They can reach speeds of up to 70 mph and swim (although they don’t like it). The cheetahs’ name derives from the Hindi word “chita,” which means “spotted.”
These large cats, while fearsome, do not have the ability to roar like a lion, but they can emit what is known as a chirrup, perhaps the sweetest sound you will ever hear a lethal cat make.

Cheetahs are an endangered species

These cats are not endangered-not yet. But they are vulnerable. In fact, their numbers in the wild are so low (they numbered about 7,100 in 2016) that people involved in species conservation are pushing for them to be declared endangered.
National Geographic reported that cheetah numbers “could drop another 53 percent in the next 15 years,” making now the time for action.

They like to stay busy

Cheetahs like to stay busy by being busy. They have the highest reproduction rates out of the entire big cat family. This may seem counterintuitive considering the species is highly vulnerable, but the Big Cat Rescue Organization says nearly 90 percent of cheetah cubs die within the first three months.

Cheetahs are fast

And that’s an understatement. We’ve mentioned that these guys can reach speeds of up to 70 mph, but did you know they can go from 0-60 mph in 3 seconds?
This fact becomes even more surreal when you see a cheetah running in slow motion.

Cheetahs are skilled hunters

Cheetahs have excellent vision, which they use to spot potential prey before they pounce. Once a cheetah loses sight of its next meal, they use their lightning speed-and the element of surprise thanks to their camouflaged fur-to kill.
Cheetahs often hide their food in tall, shady grass so that no other animal has a chance to steal it. According to NatGeo, cheetahs are also very hardy and only need a drink every three to four days.

They are surprisingly graceful

Cheetahs are very lithe-they move quickly and full-grown adults weigh between 77 and 143 pounds and reach between 3.5 and 4.5 feet in length (not including their tails).

Females enjoy the quiet life
Female cheetahs live alone for the most part, except when they give birth-then they live with their cubs in a small pack. The only other time female cheetahs interact with other adults is during mating.
Males are somewhat more social and sometimes form small groups of two or three to expand and defend more territory.

Where Do Leopards Live?

Leopards are large and graceful cats, known for the beautiful pattern on their fur. Leopards are usually considered African animals, but they also live on other continents.
In this AnimalWised article, we will explain where leopards live. We will also talk more about leopards and their natural habitat and distribution. Keep reading to learn more!

All about Leopards
The leopard, scientifically known as Panthera pardus, is a member of the Felidae family. In other words, it belongs to the cat family. Compared to its cousins, the tiger, jaguar and lion, the leopard is the smallest of all big cats.
There are 9 recognized leopard subspecies. They are the following:

  • African leopard
  • Indian leopard
  • Javan leopard
  • Arabian leopard
  • Persian leopard
  • Amur leopard
  • Indochina leopard
  • Sri Lanka leopard

What do leopard subspecies have in common?
As we said above, there are nine different leopard subspecies that have been able to adapt to many different habitats. In fact, leopards can live in a range of regions and climates, from deserts to rainforests, forests, grasslands, savannas, woodlands, mountains, coastal areas, scrublands and swamps. All in all, they live much more than any other big cat.
However, regardless of their territory, all leopards are carnivorous predators and are among the loneliest animals in the world.

In which countries can you find leopards?

Leopards are found in Africa and Asia, from the Middle Eastern countries to Russia, Korea, China, India and Malaysia. Consequently, live in a variety of habitats, including forests, mountains, deserts and grasslands. The leopard is a very adaptable species and can be found in different regions of the world.

Leopards are present in the wild in over 70 countries in Africa, Eurasia and the Indian subcontinent.

In Africa, locations include:

  • Algeria
  • Chad
  • Egypt
  • Djibouti
  • Guinea
  • Ghana
  • Niger
  • Namibia
  • Rwanda
  • Senegal
  • Somalia
  • Swaziland
  • DTCs
  • Togo
  • Uganda
  • Zimbabwe

The leopard is extinct in Zanzibar and increasingly rare in sub-Saharan and North African regions. Scientists believe that extinction is very likely in countries such as Egypt. In Eurasia, leopards are found in several areas, including:

  • Afghanistan
  • Chinese
  • Bangladesh
  • India
  • Laos
  • Myanmar
  • Malaysia
  • Nepal
  • Oman

Where do leopards live? Habitat and distribution

Leopards are large and graceful cats, known for the beautiful pattern on their fur. Leopards are usually considered African animals, but live on other continents as well.
In this AnimalWised article, we will explain where leopards live. We will also talk more about leopards and their natural habitat and distribution.

All species of leopards, except the African leopard, are found in Asia, especially in South Asia and the Indian subcontinent. Leopards have been crossed with other big cats, but the offspring is considered a hybrid, not a subspecies.

Leopards are large animals, but they are the smallest of the big cat category. Leopards exhibit sexual dimorphism in that male leopards are larger than female leopards. While male leopards weigh an average of 82-198 lb62-132 lb.
aboons, rabbits, rodents, birds, lizards, porcupines, warthogs, fish, and dung beetles.

Where do Leopards live?

Leopards are found in Africa and Asia, from the Middle Eastern countries to Russia, Korea, China, India and Malaysia. Consequently, live in a variety of habitats, including forests, mountains, deserts and grasslands. The leopard is a very adaptable species and can be found in various regions of the world, including.

  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Arabian Peninsula
  • Southwestern and eastern Turkey
  • Judean Desert of Sinai
  • Foothills of the Himalayas
  • India
  • Russia
  • Chinese
  • Islands of Java
  • Sri Lanka

Leopards are present in the wild in over 70 countries in Africa, Eurasia, and the Indian subcontinent. In Africa, locations include:

  • Algeria
  • Chad
  • Egypt
  • Djibouti
  • Guinea
  • Ghana
  • Niger
  • Namibia
  • Rwanda
  • Senegal
  • Somalia
  • Swaziland
  • DTCs
  • Togo
  • Uganda
  • Zimbabwe

The leopard is extinct in Zanzibar and increasingly rare in sub-Saharan and North African regions. Scientists believe that extinction is very likely in countries such as Egypt. In Eurasia, leopards are found in several areas, including:

  • Afghanistan
  • Chinese
  • Bangladesh
  • India
  • Laos
  • Myanmar
  • Malaysia
  • Nepal
  • Oman
  • Pakistan
    Are leopards extinct?

South Asia, Siberia and Africa are the traditional homes of the leopard. Small numbers of this species can be found as far east as China and Malaysia; The leopard has the largest distribution of any wild cat.

However, the leopard is an endangered species. It is hunted heavily as a trophy and for its skin and body parts, which are used in traditional medicine, and it also faces habitat and prey loss.

How do Leopards adapt to habitat?

As you can see, the answer to where leopards live is actually very broad. Leopards are a very adaptable species that can live in very different habitats and ranges; they have developed special traits that help them make the most of their environment.
Studies have shown that leopard subspecies vary in coloration depending on the area in which they live. For example, desert leopards are known to be several shades lighter than grassland. These adaptations to their habitat go beyond fur and camouflage; the paws of their paws are different in each subspecies, allowing them to walk in different terrain in extreme temperatures.

What is the territory coverage of a Leopard?

Leopards are solitary predators that like to forage in wide areas, their home ranges. The average size of these ranges depends on the landscape and the density of prey. When they live in rocky habitats, leopards have smaller ranges. If they have little prey or if humans live nearby, they require wide home ranges. A leopard’s range can be anywhere from 5 to 450 square kilometers.
Leopards can be aggressive when others lurk near them and invade their home ranges. Males can be very aggressive in terms of marking their territory, often attacking young males who unknowingly intrude. However, they tolerate females better. Females, on the other hand, often have overlapping territories without much conflict.

Is the Leopard’s habitat transforming?

As human encroachment increases and climate change kills the vegetation on which leopard herbivores survive, the big cat is increasingly at risk. If habitat fragmentation, population explosion and industrialization, and deforestation take a toll on these majestic predators, it would be a massive loss for the world!
We must do our best to protect the places where leopards live and save their habitat and distribution for future generations.

Day Care Scares, and Parents Worse Nightmares

Do we as parents really know what’s going on behind doors at our child’s day care? Even if we hand selected the facility, trusted the owners, loved the teachers, appreciated the fact they have room to room monitors. Do we still know what is happening with our children?
Let’s face it, in this day and time we all have to work. We can barely make it with one income, so both parents have to work. Or it could be we are a single parent and have to work. We have to place our child where the hours are readily available to our work hours. Some place also that can transport to and from school if needed.

Day Care, Child Care, Learning Center, Romp and Play. We may hear these names many times over and over in our life, but after this article you will find I’ve been very open and direct, and the words used above will most definitely never be forgotten with you again.

I have worked in many day cares over my life time. Some were very good day cares and then others were very bad. I will enclose some of the things I as a mother and day care worker discovered, and some of the terrible mishaps and let you decide the rest.

My first experience as a day care worker was when my own children were two and four. I like many of you Moms out there needed extra income coming in, and something to do with my children. I thought what better way than to work and get to keep my kids at the day care for free.

My experience with this particular day care was, that they allowed those children who had accidents in their clothes, to be punished and they had to remain in a seat away from all other children in wet clothes to think about what they had done. My question to all parents is this, ” Think about what they had done”? Remind you this child was three years old. When I suggested to change the young lad I was reprimanded and told to take care of my job duties and to leave that situation up to them. This was by the way the owner suggesting this to me.

This particular day care has posted menus out in the hall area. Posted for all the parents to view. This is intended to impress those parents who show general concern of what their children are having for lunch. Well I was the cook. I was told what to cook and if we didn’t have enough in the fridge we quickly cooked something else. Spaghetti consisted of adding nothing but ketchup and water and making it stretch. This information is solely for those parents who pay $100.00 to $200.00 dollars a week or more so that you know where your hard earned money is going.

From me having placed my self in this situation and my children, I wanted to make things better for these kids. After all, it was not their fault that they were here and it’s summer time. I begin to try and punch up the flavor with their lunches. Try to sprinkle cheese on their day old bread, but I was quickly reprimanded again and again. I finally threw in the towel and left this employment.

My other experiences in other day cares were not great memories either. You have plastic car beds for the toddlers to sleep on and let’s just say, some of your teachers could care a less about the proper disinfection that needs to be used. So expect as it always happens for your child to come home with that wonderful gift. Head Lice. There procedures that are to be done and do you want to know if those are actually followed out? Especially if we are paying your child’s teacher $ 6.55 an hour.

I’ve watched other kids bite, push, hit, punch, steal, cuss, and this is all within one day. What do we do as parents? We have to work. Well more surprise visits and I’ll tell you what times to do them below.

1.) Show up at your child’s day care center around an hour after you already dropped them off. You can always use the oops forgot to give you their medicine or she or he left this in the car etc.

2.) Show up right before nap is to be over, generally if nap is from 1:00 pm till 2:00pm then go at 1:30 pm. This will allow you to see what environment your child is sleeping in and what the teacher is or is not doing.

3.) Expect the unexpected. If your day care thinks you always show up at this time or that time surprise them. Catch them off guard. And last but not least, listen and talk to other parents, usually their the ones dropping off their children once you’ve already pulled off. So if there is any crying or arguing with the teacher or misbehaving, these other parents can vouch that they saw something etc.

I will say that the room monitors are great! For those day cares that do provide them and actually use them and monitor them, than kudos to you. My experience with the day care I worked at, that actually had these, were getting paid allot more than the other day cares that didn’t have them. Were they used daily? No! Excuses were made that they malfunctioned, teacher got busy did not realize she had not flipped on her monitor screen in her room etc.

It is up to the owner of the facility to make sure that everything is running smooth. This includes their teachers. I personally don’t want a teacher watching my child that’s falling asleep at their desk, Do you? Trust me this does go on. It should also be noted that the bathrooms our children go into day after day are absolutely disgusting.

Teachers don’t get paid enough to try and watch children that are way over the state quota anyway, much less be actually concerned that your child’s bathroom is cleaned and sanitized. Yes, this is part of a teachers job, but so is not allowing your children to get hurt while at the day care is too. Ask to see the day cares weekly incident reports. Look at how many accidents are happening. Monitor the toddler room incident reports. They will all say, he or she bit because they wanted a toy. What their really saying is, I had my back turned and was trying to watch my limit of my class room and your child was bitten and I don’t know why.

Are there good day cares out there? Absolutely there are. But you have to search and take time to research them, ask neighbors and mostly ask neighborhood kids who have attended these day cares what they think. Kid’s are brutally honest, and if you ask them they will tell you the truth.

The final and last day care I worked in, did me in. My children had now all grown up. I love children and this is the field I wanted to remain in. I was a floater teacher as many will call it. I call it the eyes and ears of the day care. I drove children to and from school, I cooked, watched the two year old room, did summer field trips etc.

This day care had a marvelous owner. I’m going to call her Miss Janet. Miss Janet was loved by the children, and the parents as well. What Miss Janet did not know due to the fact she was not there but on Friday’s to issue pay checks was that some of her teachers were abusing the children. I watched teachers yell, scream, cuss, push, thump, grab, dump a child’s head down in the toilet, encourage children to fight all within the name of calling themselves a teacher.

I reported the teachers to the owner that were abusing the children. I was pulled aside and told that the teacher was being reprimmanded and instead of investigating her actions they simply pulled her from that room I was working in, and placed her in a room where as the owner put it, the children are older and can talk so if she does something to them they will tell me. That was the day I walked out of my final and last day care facility.

I as you, would have never imagined in a million years this could still go on in this day and time. The time where news and the media have so drastically opened all of our eyes, to child abuse within our day cares. Remember according to daycare.suite101 that we as parents should watch for signs of a teacher or owner who is not providing us with qualified teachers. Remember the old saying, We get what we pay for.

According to web page education. com we as parents can feel secure about some of the day cares out there. But we have to be pretty keen on the idea to listen to our children and to watch for the clues that abuse is going on in the centers according to their article at life. family education .com.

We all as parents have to make a choice one day whether to rely on others to help watch our children while we work. As earlier mentioned, things to do are surprise visits, talk with your children and ask them questions, talk with other parents, get friendly with them and see if their children have complained. And ask to see incident reports. Most importantly is their state examination. Ask to see what they scored on that. This tells you if the day care stays up to date on rules and regulations or if their only doing what they need to do, just to get by.

To find out more information about abusive child care centers or where to find help you can call: 1-800- Attorney. Or visit the web site


Author: Candus Poyner/ Day Care Teacher

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